Internal propulsion is kind of propulsion, producing propulsive force inside a vehicle without any relation to the environment. This feature has as consequence one important property - energy consumption by propulsive device does not depend on vehicle speed. Really, in different reference systems vehicle has different speeds, but energy consumption is the same for all reference systems. So, energy consumption by propulsive device is associated only with production of thrust, but not with overcoming friction or gravity and gaining of kinetic or potential energy. At constant thrust energy consumption is constant, but mechanical energy production is dependent on speed P = F*V. At least theoretically, there exists speed (in particular reference system) upon reaching which propulsive device begins to generate more mechanical energy than to consume. So, internal propulsion is characterized by perpetual motion. As indirect proof of this concept can serve jet propulsion, for which energy consumption by jet engine does not depend on vehicle speed and depends only on thrust. (This fact is confirmed by people, working with jet engines).

Internal propulsion may be built on basis of different physical phenomena. Some of them are described on this page. But it covers only few devices and some features – there are much more phenomena and effects, on basis of which can be built internal propulsion...

# Introductory remarks

Consider internal propulsion device. Consider it as black box, which act with force F on certain point and in certain direction inside a vehicle. Since there is no movement of black box relative to the point of application of force, energy - E, which we spend in black box during motion of vehicle equals zero: E = F·S = (S=0) = 0 (although, there may be present energy consumption associated with production of force). But the same force performs work against friction during motion and against inertial forces during acceleration of vehicle. Work against friction transforms into heat whereas against inertial forces - into kinetic energy of vehicle. So with the help of internal propulsion devices we can create energy (thermal, kinetic) from nothing. This means that any internal propulsion device will be a Perpetuum Mobile.

Energy conservation law also does not fulfill for jet propulsion, which can be regarded as a kind of internal propulsion, which unwisely uses very grate amounts of energy to produce thrust. Really, if we consider, to say, rocket, we need more power P to maintain acceleration, namely thrust - F = m∙a - at higher speeds: P = F∙υ. But jet engines use the same amount of energy to produce equal thrust at all speeds - thrust depends only on speed of exhausted gases relative to engine. ( Since motion is relative there is not absolute speed. In different reference systems rocket will have different speeds. If thrust would be dependent on speed, it would be different in different reference systems and rocket would accelerate differently depending on from which reference system we regard it. But acceleration is the same in all reference systems. This implies that thrust also is the same in all reference systems and does not depend on the speed of vehicle. ) This implies that with aid of jet engine we can build device which produces more energy than uses. To explain this, consider one simple device. Jet engine is mounted tangentially on a rim of disk. Disk is mounted on the same axle as generator. Power which uses jet engine is dependent only on thrust F - P = f(F), but power, which generate generator, is dependent on both – the thrust and the speed of rotation P = F∙υ. It means that theoretically there exists speed after achieving which generator begins to generate more power than uses jet engine which drives this generator.

The same considerations are valid not only for jet propulsion, but also for propeller propulsion, for propeller with variable pitch.

# Mechanical

## Inertial Internal Propulsion Now we proceed to specific internal propulsion devices. First consider device based on a principle of converting linear momentum of translational movement into angular momentum of rotational movement (figure).

When gun fires bullet, complete system obtains momentum m·V directed to the right, where m – mass of the bullet, V – velocity of the bullet. When the bullet strikes the paddle of flywheel it gives up momentum m·V, but part of this momentum turns into angular momentum of rotational motion of flywheel and part is transmitted, in form of linear momentum, to the whole system trough the axle. Detailed calculation gives that this momentum will divide equally between translational and rotational components. So the whole system will obtain momentum m·V/2 without any relation to the environment.

This example suggests the fact that energy, since energy conservation law is not applicable to internal propulsion, is being conserved only for such mathematical abstraction as material point. If we have real bodies having dimensions, even so small as atoms, molecules or elementary particles, when rotation is present, energy does not conserve. It means that all theoretical mechanics and all based on it sciences вЂ“ thermodynamics, statistical physics and even quantum mechanics and so on вЂ“ shall be reanalyzed and rewritten with regard of conservation of energy.

## Electromechanical Internal Propulsion Now we replace the system with electric motor, fixed on the axle (figure). Rotor of the motor freely rotates on the axle, stator also is free to rotate on axle, but its movement is restricted by two stoppers (paddles) which restrict its motion each in its own direction. By acceleration of rotor, on rotor and stator act equal forces directed in opposite directions. Force acting on stator – F – is transmitted through the stopper to the system, while force acting on rotor will divide equally by two: half act against inertial forces, half through the axle is transmitted to system in opposite to the stopper (stator) force direction. Therefore in the system will arise force of absolute value equaled F/2 and directed to the right on figure. In system also will arise torque, but last can be compensated with symmetrical device with opposite direction of rotation.

The force in the system will exist as long as rotor accelerates. Therefore after achieving maximum rpm the motor is switched to generator mode. Now forces between rotor and stator will be directed in opposite directions, rotor will decelerate, and forces in the system will distribute between lower stopper and the axle and will be of the same magnitude as by the acceleration. According to law of conservation of energy, when we neglect friction and resistance losses, the whole energy spent for acceleration will be recuperated during deceleration. This example is very evident and obvious - creating force, which is able to perform work, we do not spend energy for maintaining it.

## Gyroscopic Internal Propulsion When torque is applied to gyroscope, it generates rotating moment in perpendicular direction. If arms of gyroscope have different length, the force acting on supporting points will be different due to lever rule. This difference can be used as propulsive force.

(Green – applied torque, red – induced moment)

# Fluid-dynamical

## Aerodynamical Internal Propulsion Consider now internal propulsion device constructed on basis of aerodynamical principle. Consider a wing. As is known, when gas or fluid flows around a wing it creates lifting force which is directed perpendicular to the stream. The only fact that this force is perpendicular, suggests that given force is capable of doing work without spending energy. Important feature of this force is that it is at least hundred times greater than drag, which wing exerts to the stream. Take now closed contour (pipe) and in one place situate wing in vertical position, and in another – propeller, creating stream, which flows around the wing – figure. The stream will create pressure difference between lower and upper surfaces of the wing. At the lower surface pressure will rise, at the upper – sink. Pressure difference means force F directed to the left on figure. The magnitude of this force will be

F = Cl∙(ρ∙υ2/2)∙A,

where Cl is coefficient of lift, which is for concave-convex wing should be in order of 1, ρ – fluid density, υ – speed of stream, A – area of the wing. When we take water as working fluid, at stream speed of order of 14 m/s the force should be of the order of 1 kg/cm2. To minimize dimensions of the system one wing may be replaced with array of small winglets, positioned vertically one after another. In system may be several parallel rows of winglets distance between which shall be in order of (0.5-1.5)∙c, where c is chord of the winglet. In this case the coefficient of lift will diminish due to interaction between winglets.

## Hydrodynamical Internal Propulsion When water is flowing along the contour, it changes its direction. Force equals twice mass flow per second m multiplied by velocity V. Speed of flow is different in thin and thick sections, what results in difference of forces. The resulting force serves as propulsive force.

# Electromagnetic

## Electromagnetic Internal Propulsion When current I is flowing inside of magnet, it interacts with magnetic field of magnet B, producing perpendicular force F. This force has no reaction and therefore may be used to propel vehicle.

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